Publication Title: 
Pond et al. (1993)
Initiation of somatic embryogenesis in white spruce (Picea glauca): Genetic control, culture treatment effects, and implications for tree breeding
Pond S. E., Bonga J. M., Park Yill-sung
Publication Year: 
Series Name: 
Theoretical and Applied Genetics
The degree of genetic control and the effects of cultural treatments on somatic embryogenesis (SE) in white spruce were investigated with material derived from six-parent diallel crosses, including reciprocals. Thirty zygotic embryos from both immature and mature cones of each family were cultured in media with either 2,4-D or Picloram immediately after the collection of cones and after 2 months of cold storage. There were significant differences in SE initiation between immature and mature explants, and fresh and cold-stored seeds, but there was no significant differences with culture media effect. Significant variances due to families and to family times treatment interactions were found. The mean percentage of explants that initiated SE in each family ranged from 3.3% to 54.6%, with an overall average of 30.5%. The partitioning of family variance revealed that 21.7% was due to general combining ability effects, 3.5% was due to maternal effects, and 5.5% was due to reciprocal effects, but that the specific combining ability (SCA) was negligible. Variance due to interactions of family times treatments collectively accounted for 32.6%, while the remaining 37.8% of variation was accounted for by random error. However, when comparing the responses obtained with the treatment combinations, the SE response for freshly excised immature embryo explants showed comparatively large SCA variance, whereas the SCA variance was very small in the other treatment combinations.
Publication Species: 
Picea glauca (white spruce)
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