To induce somatic embryogenesis of Greek fir, Abies cephalonica Loud., the influence of different cultivation media, sampling dates, and cold treatment storage were examined. The initiation frequencies ranged from 1% to 25%. The sampling date had a significant effect on the initiation of embryogenic cultures and a high frequency was observed within a 5 week window. The effect of cone storage, composition of initiation media, and the medium by storage interaction also remained nonsignificant after 3 and 10 months of proliferation growth. At the maturation phase, the highest tested concentrations of abscisic acid (ABA), 16 and 32 mu mol/L, increased both the capability of embryogenic cell masses (ECMs) to produce embryos and the mean number of embryos. Of the two tested carbohydrates, maltose-containing media produced more embryos altogether (1943, on the average of 22.3 embryos per gram fresh mass) and 76% of the ECMs were able to produce embryos when compared with the corresponding values (152, on the average 3.0 embryos per gram fresh mass) and 15.3%, respectively, on sucrose-containing medium. However, 93.5% of embryos on maltose-containing medium died during the germination phase, whereas the corresponding percentage on sucrose-containing medium was 78.2%.